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In the international area, delays with starting and ramping up major contracts al s o dragged d o wn margins.

Bij de internationale projecten buiten Europa wogen de uitgestelde opstarting en de mobilisatie met betrekking tot grote contracten ook op de marges.

Animals which are uanble to walk must no t b e dragged t o t he place of slaughter, but must be killed where they lie or, where it is possible and does not entail any unnecessary suffering, transported on a trolley or movable platform to the place of emergency slaughter.

Dieren die niet kunnen lopen, mogen niet naar de slachtplaats worden gesleept, maar moeten ter plaatse worden gedood, of, indien dat mogelijk is en geen onnodig lijden veroorzaakt, op een wagentje of een rijdend plateau naar het lokaal voor noodslachtingen worden vervoerd.

Is the Commission aware that there are escalators in existence in shops which comply with European safety standards for escalators, but seem nevertheless to be extremely dangerous in practice, particularly for young children, who a r e dragged t o t he ground at the end of the escalator by the moving rubber handrail, and could be injured or killed as a result?

Is het de Commissie bekend dat er roltrappen in warenhuizen bestaan die weliswaar voldoen aan de Europese veiligheidsnormen voor roltrappen maar die desondanks in de praktijk uiterst gevaarlijk blijken te zijn, in het bijzonder voor jonge kinderen die onder de bewegende rubberband aan het eind van de leuning naar de vloer worden getrokken en daardoor verminkt of gedood kunnen worden?

Although it was only 8 w ee k s away , t i m e dragged. Ookal was het al over 8 weken, de tijd kroop voorbij. The opposite corner mirrors t h e dragged c o rn er's movement.

D e tegenoverliggende h oe k imiteert de beweging van d e gesleepte h oe k. Files ca n b e dragged a n d dropped in the same way as with an ordinary disk.

Bestanden kunnen worden overgedragen op dezelfde manier als bij een gewone harde schijf door ze te slepen. In such a situation it is more than likely that other issues will g e t dragged i n to the public debate.

The label will always be created at the center of the graphing area but can. All columns ca n b e dragged t o t he desired location [ The thing which should most concern us as Members of the European Parliament is that the people who criticise and denounce these practices a r e dragged o f f the street, face sham trials and are then put in prison.

Wat ons als leden van het Parlement de grootste zorgen moet baren is echter het feit dat diegenen die dit aan de kaak stellen en kritiek uiten, van de straat worden gehaald, in schijnprocessen worden veroordeeld en worden opgesloten.

If you move the mouse the object wil l b e dragged a l on g. Als u nu de muis verplaatst, sleept u het object mee.

In the major persecution and extermination operations of , the situation. Tijdens de grote vervolgings- en vernietigingsacties van werd het nog. Current searches: kwalen , bowmore , slap , lotta , marokkaanse , tilburg , plasticfolie , extended application , velen , impotent , exemplaren , omnimove , stuwadoor , thermae , liefde.

Please click on the reason for your vote: This is not a good example for the translation above. The wrong words are highlighted.

It does not match my search. It should not be summed up with the orange entries The translation is wrong or of bad quality.

Thank you very much for your vote! You helped to increase the quality of our service. Destroy the instruments that are being operated for [ Vernietig de instrumenten die ter deportatie [ In our highest moments we sense a still greater joy and [ La Co mmiss ion e si a dop era c on ogni mezzo per concludere accordi bilaterali con i paesi terzi nel quadro del commercio del vino e degli alcolici e sta attualmente negoziando con gli Stati Uniti.

Qualora, meno di sette giorni prima dell'ora di partenza prevista, cancelli o preveda ragionevolmente di cancellare un volo, i l vettore a ereo o l'operatore turistico fanno tutto il possibile per prendere contatto con i passeggeri interessati per illustrare loro le eventuali alternative possibili e per concordare con loro le condizioni a cui accetterebbero di rinunciare alla prenotazione confermata.

In l inea ge nerale, l'Unione e gli S tati m em bri d evo no fare qu ant o in loro pote re per ga ranti re la protezione e la sicurezza del sistema risultante dal programma Galileo e delle tecnologie e attrezzature del PRS al fine di impedire l'impiego dei segnali emessi per il PRS da parte di persone fisiche o giuridiche non autorizzate e per evitare un utilizzo ostile del servizio nei loro confronti.

L'attuazione della politica relativa alla DN richiede un nuovo progetto di collaborazione pubblico — privato nel campo dell'infrastruttura, dei trasporti e della logistica; il CESE invita l e par ti a fa re de l loro meglio per sviluppare tale progetto comune.

Le garantisco, onorevole Busuttil, che la Com mi ssion e intende t rovar e delle soluzi on i per a iu tare gli Stati membri attualmente sottoposti a forti pressioni migratorie.

Among their three indices, diversity of TL to which a species belongs i. Future research on the iTP should test the universality of the negative relationship with biodiversity and synthesize its relationship with other indices such as FCL or D R.

Modified from Ishikawa et al. Two possible mechanisms behind the negative relationships between biodiversity as indicated by species richness and the integrated trophic position iTP in stream food webs.

In biomass view, the width of grey bars indicates the biomass of each trophic level layer. The iTP index may also be expanded to other disciplines, including fisheries science and demography.

For instance, Pauly et al. In contrast, the global mean TP value of human beings has gradually increased from 2. Because these TP values were estimated from stomach contents or published databases, the observed variation might be different from that based on the stable isotope analysis, which takes account of energy flow along trophic pathways.

This will be useful as fundamental information to predict the maximum population size of both animals and human beings on the Earth, under the constraint conditions of resource production, energy transfer efficiency, and ongoing biodiversity loss.

It should be noted the iTP estimation relies on two important assumptions, although it has not been applied yet by other researchers since Ishikawa et al.

Some recent studies have suggested a potentially considerable variation in TDF Glu across a variety of organisms e.

Second, the iTP estimate for stream macroinvertebrates in Ishikawa et al. Therefore, their iTP values might be underestimated if the incorporation of terrestrial organic matter e.

However, the negative relationship between biodiversity and iTP was still evident even when the analysis excluded headwater ecosystems where terrestrial resources made a greater contribution to the biomass of stream macroinvertebrates Ishikawa et al.

The PE decreases with decreasing body size i. It is also suggested that AE increases with more easily digestible foods such as prey organisms without hard shells.

The CE is affected by the population density or biomass of diet organisms i. A higher CE is expected in consumers that have more available foods in their habitat Fig.

Energy is produced by catabolizing a portion of the assimilated fraction, which is ultimately lost as heat or respired CO 2.

In contrast, some undigested prey for the consumer may be broken down by microbes and added to the assimilation flux.

Simplified scheme illustrating three representative components PE production efficiency, AE assimilation efficiency, CE consumption efficiency in trophic transfer efficiency TTE Chapin et al.

The trophic discrimination factor TDF is expected to decrease with increasing PE based on the Rayleigh fractionation model.

In contrast, it is hypothesized that TDF increases with increasing AE due to a greater contribution from detrital microbial input to assimilation flux.

See Eq. Indeed, this hypothesis is supported by recent studies that showed that the presence of microbes adds one more TL Steffan et al.

It should be noted that when microbes also incorporate inorganic nitrogen to synthesize new amino acids, TDF may rather decrease Yamaguchi et al.

Under a constant enzymatic activity i. Values of TDF Glu lower than 8. In contrast, values of TDF Glu higher than 8. It should be noted that consumers dobsonfly larvae with no ingestion flux i.

The TTE indicates biomass yield per unit production and strongly relates to a multi-trophic ecosystem functioning Duffy et al. Although the dynamic range of TTE may not be very great in nature e.

Energetics predict that species body mass increases with decreasing biomass per unit production Brown and Gillooly , which may result in an apparent negative relationship between TTE and TP Barnes et al.

In contrast, the positive relationship may be explained by the fact that carnivores tend to have higher PE than herbivores, because the nutritional composition of carnivores and their diets e.

Animals tend to feed on more than one prey or food source in most cases. To estimate the relative contribution of each resource to the focal consumer, an isotopic mixing model is sometimes used.

For example, Fig. In this case, the relative contribution of the two resources to this consumer is consistently estimated between the two isotopes.

Researchers may consider at least four possibilities when they meet the case shown in Fig. First, there might be another unknown resource that is missing in this window.

Researchers might fail to collect a sufficient number of samples for statistical robustness, and thus the isotopic variation in resources may be underestimated.

Mixing model examples a , b that illustrates a consumer grey and its two distinctive resources black and white.

The linear mixing model works in a , whereas it does not work in b. Note that the trophic discrimination factor TDF is set at zero in a and b.

The shapes and colors of the symbols indicate different dietary tracers and their isotopic compositions, respectively.

The linear mixing model with more than one isotope assumes that different elements, nutrients, or compounds in multiple resources are disassembled and reassembled in consumers in a same fashion with the resources Phillips et al.

This is unrealistic in mixed ecosystems such as freshwater ecosystems, where terrestrial and aquatic resources with a very different food quality e.

For simplicity, let a given consumer e. The TP value of this omnivore would be estimated by carbon as 2. A discrepancy could occur when the consumer obtains carbon mainly as a carbohydrate e.

This effect potentially complicates the linear mixing model using BSIA, but has often been underestimated Gannes et al.

To minimize this isotopic routing effect on the TP estimation of animals, some mixing model packages e. In such a case, the isotopic routing effect must be seriously considered, whatever the mixing model that is applied.

Finally, the turnover time of dietary tracers elements or compounds might be of importance Fig. If the focal consumer is captured and analyzed before its biomass is completely replaced with its current diet, some tracers may already reflect the new diet but others may retain vestiges of its previous diet Fig.

In such a case, the combined use of multiple dietary tracers with different turnover times is problematic. The BSIA method integrates mixed isotopic compositions of different elements e.

The use of BSIA is associated with numerous biochemical and physiological assumptions that must be made a priori to consider the size of any potential isotopic shift within the organism, as well as between basal resources and consumers DeNiro and Epstein These factors may potentially provide misleading outputs from the mixing model, or results that contradict prior information e.

In contrast, CSIA-AA is less sensitive to both the isotopic routing and the turnover effects than BSIA, because: 1 animal nitrogen is derived mainly from diet amino acids, whereas their carbon is derived not only from amino acids, but also from other sources such as carbohydrates and lipids in their diets Ohkouchi et al.

Unfortunately, the current CSIA-AA methodology cannot estimate the precise TP of animals inhabiting an ecosystem where both vascular and non-vascular plants contribute to basal resources, without knowledge of the relative proportions of each resource in the focal animal.

Without calculating mixing proportions, the TP values of sea turtles, polychaeta, and some stream macroinvertebrates are significantly underestimated Arthur et al.

This paper conceptually reviewed the three topics in food web science that can be addressed by CSIA-AA in future studies.

These topics are not mutually independent, and are tightly interconnected. For example, if the decrease of iTP occurs under the variance in edibility hypothesis, the increase of inedible prey will result in decreasing CE.

In contrast, under the trophic omnivory hypothesis, CE will increase in more diverse communities with decreasing inedible prey.

If PE and AE remain constant in these two cases, the relationship between TTE and biodiversity may be negative and positive under the variance in edibility hypothesis and the trophic omnivory hypothesis, respectively.

However, the negative relationship between the iTP and biodiversity must be revised if the TDF significantly varies among communities.

The PE is determined in organismal metabolisms and is unlikely affected by biodiversity. Thus, AE should be responsible for increasing TDF in more diverse communities through detrital contributions.

Given that PE and CE remain constant, this suggests a positive relationship between TTE and biodiversity, which supports the trophic omnivory hypothesis.

These ideas are all speculative at the moment, but will be worth testing in further studies to understand the role of biodiversity on multi-trophic ecosystem functioning.

After the seminal work executed by Minagawa and Wada , stable isotope techniques including BSIA have contributed significantly to the development of trophic ecology.

Surprisingly, their early data suggested that a great isotopic discrimination of nitrogen occurred during amino acid metabolism i.

Since it is a relatively new methodology, several assumptions are associated with the equation that is used for TP calculation. Furthermore, to establish the TDF more accurately, some recent studies recommend the use of multiple amino acids e.

In order to reduce errors associated with the TP estimate and putative diet menu of the focal organism in nature, I suggest researchers do a step-by-step screening for all possibilities based on prior information e.

In addition to the methodological refinements, a theoretical modelling approach is missing in current CSIA-AA research, and this will be indispensable to pursue next-generation food web science.

Numbers correspond to the following references: 1 Styring et al. Finally, the TP estimate based on the energy flow web is not necessarily the same with the one based on the connectedness web.

The two approaches sometimes cause confusion by showing an inconsistent contribution of prey to the consumers, especially in complex food webs where consumers are supported by dozens of prey organisms Nielsen et al.

Furthermore, most animals drastically shift food preferences during their lifespan Graham et al. Ecology — Limnol Oceanogr Methods — J Agric Food Chem — Ecol Lett — Principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology, 2nd edn.

Springer, New York, pp — Google Scholar. Chikaraishi Y, Kashiyama Y, Ogawa NO, Kitazato H, Ohkouchi N Biosynthetic and metabolic controls of nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids in marine macroalgae and gastropods: implications for aquatic food web studies.

Mar Ecol Prog Ser — Chikaraishi Y, Ogawa NO, Ohkouchi N Further evaluation of the trophic level estimation based on nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids.

Kyoto University Press, Kyoto, pp 37— Ecol Evol — Limnol Oceanogr — Verh Internat Verein Limnol — Geochim Cosmochim Acta — PLoS One 7:e Elton CS Animal ecology.

The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Mar Biol — Contrib Mar Sci — Geochem J. Haraguchi TF, Uchida M, Shibata Y, Tayasu I Contributions of detrital subsidies to aboveground spiders during secondary succession, revealed by radiocarbon and stable isotope signatures.

Oecologia — J Exp Mar Biol Ecol — Am Nat — Hyodo F, Matsumoto T, Takematsu Y, Itioka T Dependence of diverse consumers on detritus in a tropical rain forest food web as revealed by radiocarbon analysis.

Funct Ecol — Sci Rep Jennings S, Warr KJ, Mackinson S Use of size-based production and stable isotope analyses to predict trophic transfer efficiencies and predator—prey body mass ratios in food webs.

Ecol Lett. Science — Kondoh M Foraging adaptation and the relationship between food-web complexity and stability. Kozlovsky DG A critical evaluation of the trophic level concept.

Ecological efficiencies. Food Webs — Lindeman RL The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. La Co mmiss ion e si a dop era c on ogni mezzo per concludere accordi bilaterali con i paesi terzi nel quadro del commercio del vino e degli alcolici e sta attualmente negoziando con gli Stati Uniti.

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In l inea ge nerale, l'Unione e gli S tati m em bri d evo no fare qu ant o in loro pote re per ga ranti re la protezione e la sicurezza del sistema risultante dal programma Galileo e delle tecnologie e attrezzature del PRS al fine di impedire l'impiego dei segnali emessi per il PRS da parte di persone fisiche o giuridiche non autorizzate e per evitare un utilizzo ostile del servizio nei loro confronti.

L'attuazione della politica relativa alla DN richiede un nuovo progetto di collaborazione pubblico — privato nel campo dell'infrastruttura, dei trasporti e della logistica; il CESE invita l e par ti a fa re de l loro meglio per sviluppare tale progetto comune.

Le garantisco, onorevole Busuttil, che la Com mi ssion e intende t rovar e delle soluzi on i per a iu tare gli Stati membri attualmente sottoposti a forti pressioni migratorie.

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